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By Leonard Talmy

During this two-volume set Leonard Talmy defines the sphere of cognitive semantics. He methods the query of the way language organizes conceptual fabric either at a common point and by means of reading a very important set of specific conceptual domain names: area and time, movement and placement, causation and strength interplay, and a spotlight and standpoint. Talmy keeps that those are one of the such a lot basic parameters through which language buildings perception. by way of combining those conceptual domain names into an built-in complete, Talmy indicates, we improve our knowing of the general conceptual and semantic constitution of common language. quantity 1 examines the basic platforms in which language shapes techniques. quantity 2 units forth typologies in keeping with which suggestions are based and the strategies in which they're established.

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The (b) and the (c) types of con¯ation must be distinguished because the (b) type presupposes the occurrence of the motion event, which therefore cannot be deniedÐThey lured/scared/smoked/prodded/talked him out, *but he didn't budgeÐwhereas the (c) type, with its incorporated notion of `aiming/attempting', only implicates the occurrence of the motion event, which is therefore defeasibleÐThey waved/beckoned/called him over, but he didn't budge. 3 Con¯ation onto Metaphorically Extended MOVE The third extension of the present pattern is that the Co-event can con¯ate with METAPHORIC EXTENSIONS of MOVEÐwhich are here represented by the deep verb within quotes: ``MOVE''Ðor with mid-level morphemes built on ``MOVE''.

To a speaker of a language like English, such sentences may seem so straightforward that they o¨er little to ponder. How else might such propositions be colloquially expressed? But in fact there are languages with very di¨erent patterns of expression. Even a language as seemingly kindred as Spanish can express virtually none of the above sentences in the way that English does, as is demonstrated below. 1 The Pattern Underlying Co-Event Con¯ation We can indicate the type of con¯ation pattern involved here with a construction that represents the separate semantic components individuallyÐthat is, that decomposes or ``unpacks'' the sentences.

Thus, in the ®rst example of (27f ), the woman could wear a green dress whether or not she goes to a party, and without any e¨ect on her path to one. The concomitance relation is not robustly represented in English (thus, speakers di¨er on their acceptance of the second example below). But it is readily available in some languages, like Atsugewi. '' (27) f. Concomitance i. [she WENT to the party] WITH-THE-CONCOMITANCEOF [she wore a green dress] She wore a green dress to the party. ii. [I WENT past the graveyard] WITH-THECONCOMITANCE-OF [I whistled] I whistled past the graveyard.

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