By Carl D. Martland
Undertaking review provides equipment for comparing tasks and courses aimed toward enhancing the functionality and sustainability of infrastructure initiatives. It introduces procedure functionality, innovations of sustainability, tools of engineering economics, and offers a variety of case stories, examples, and workouts established upon genuine international difficulties. The textual content is designed to help the certainty of why significant infrastructure tasks are undertaken, how they're based and evaluated, and the way they're financed.
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Additional info for Toward More Sustainable Infrastructure: Project Evaluation for Planners and Engineers
S. 2 Trillion,’’ ASCE News, February 2009. transportation problems might be expressed in terms of travel delays and maintenance costs. 3 indicates some of the problems and needs highlighted by ASCE in its 2009 review of infrastructure in the United States. The objectives of the project need to be clear and well-defined, but they can be modified based on feedback and assessments concerning completed projects or new information related to needs and opportunities. The need for flexibility may lead to certain challenges in the overall decision-making and implementation process.
Assess performance relative to original objectives. Identify needs for modification or expansion. Provide input to evaluation of similar projects. Phase I—Project Identification The first phase is the least well-defined and yet the most important for the ultimate success of a project or a program. Many ideas for projects arise in response to perceived problems and the needs of society. Congestion leads to ideas for new roads or new transit systems. Rising populations require new schools, housing, and drinking water.
Public concerns over the safety of nuclear power plants had led to stringent regulation of the construction of such plants in the United States by the 1970s; public outrage after a rather minor leakage incident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant effectively ended construction of these plants in the United States. 4 INFRASTRUCTURE, CITIES, AND CIVILIZATION It can be argued that infrastructure projects are the key to urbanization, which is perhaps the chief characteristic of civilization.