By Hans-Werner Vohr
This paintings offers fast entry to targeted info on issues of Immunotoxicology not just for scientists and people facing laboratory points but in addition for teachers and complicated scholars. Over 2 hundred contributing authors - together with a few of the world's best experts - have contributed complete essays on all correct subject matters, supplemented via key-phrase definitions of comparable phrases. complete essays are dependent uniformly to supply reader-friendly info on all facets of Immunotoxicology, together with tools of checking out and research, features of drugs, the regulatory setting and the relevance of those to humans.
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This paintings presents quick entry to targeted details on issues of Immunotoxicology not just for scientists and people facing laboratory elements but in addition for academics and complex scholars. Over two hundred contributing authors - together with a few of the world's most sensible experts - have contributed complete essays on all appropriate subject matters, supplemented through key-phrase definitions of comparable phrases.
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Base changes in alleles that replace one amino acid with another. The MHC locus is highly polymorphic, giving rise to a range of different allotypic MHC molecules. Cross-References Cross-References ▶ Cyclosporin A ▶ Antigen-Specific Cell Enrichment ▶ Rabbit Immune System Alloreaction Alloreactive Allotypic Epitopes Stimulation of T cells by MHC molecules other than those expressed on self. Immunoglobulins isolated from one strain of a species and injected into another strain will induce a response of allotypic epitopes.
A decreased T cell reactivity toward mitogens and antigens – which is probably due to increased membrane rigidity and decreased expression of costimulatory molecules such as CD28À – has been reported. Another characteristic of the immune system in the elderly is a restriction in the T cell repertoire. While newborns show a diverse spectrum of antigen recognition, elderly persons are often affected by the dominance of huge expanded clones specific for only few antigens as a result of chronic infections with, for example, persistent viruses.
It focuses on identifying chemical sensitizers by measurement of the response, or the elicitation phase, of sensitization. Challenge by inhalation requires an exposure period of 15–30 min. For irritant, volatile, reactive chemicals, which are preferentially scrubbed in the upper airways of nose-breathing experimental animals, a conjugated hapten may be especially indispensable. , hexamethylene diisocyanate, toluene diisocyanate) is critical. Changes in respiratory patterns may occur as a result of too-high concentrations used for challenge exposures and depend also on the location of the predominant deposition of the inciting and challenging agent within the respiratory tract.