By Héctor Lindo-Fuentes
Within the Nineteen Sixties and Seventies, El Salvador’s reigning army regime instituted a sequence of reforms that sought to modernize the rustic and undermine ideological radicalism, the main formidable of which was once an schooling initiative. It was once multifaceted, yet its such a lot debatable part was once using televisions in study rooms. introduced in 1968 and lasting until eventually the eve of civil conflict within the overdue Seventies, the reform ended in scholars receiving guide via courses broadcast from the capital urban of San Salvador. The Salvadoran academics’ union adverse the content material and the strategy of the reform and introduced immense moves. the army regime spoke back with repressive violence, additional alienating educators and pushing a lot of them into guerrilla fronts.
In this considerate collaborative research, the authors research the strategies wherein schooling reform grew to become entwined in debates over theories of modernization and the politics of anticommunism. additional research examines how the circulation driven the rustic into the kind of brutal infighting that used to be occurring in the course of the 3rd international because the U.S. and U.S.S.R. struggled to impose their political philosophies on constructing international locations.
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Extra info for Modernizing Minds in El Salvador: Education Reform and the Cold War, 1960–1980
The chapter opens with descriptions of the education reform as experienced by students and teachers in the classroom. It progresses forward Introduction 27 into the complex political context in which the education reform unfolded. As the government was introducing rapid changes in the educational system, the country went to war with Honduras in 1969 and the legislature started a divisive debate around land reform in 1970. These events set the stage for the second great conflict between teachers and the state, the 1971 strike.
The chapter describes the main elements of the reform and the manner in which it was implemented. It also analyzes the bubbling ferment among teachers. The growing opposition to the PCN regime by teachers culminated in a massive strike in 1968 that was triggered by conflicts over pensions and benefits. The government’s antagonistic response to the teachers opened a breach between the government and civil society that would broaden in the early 1970s. Chapter 5 picks up where chapter 4 leaves off, in 1971, and moves forward into the mid-1970s.
33 A Fight Within the Right 37 While liberals deemphasized the importance of access to education, they placed high priority on centralizing education administration. They established so-called normal schools to train teachers in a more systematic manner. They passed a comprehensive education law in 1885 that, among other things, created the position of secretary of public instruction, which eventually led to the establishment of the Ministry of Education. The national state steadily usurped the funding and administration of schools from local officials.