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By Piispanen P.S.

The thesis bargains with the synthesis and characterization of surfactants derivedfrom common items. Physico-chemical houses, resembling solubility andmelting issues, and surfactant houses, similar to dispersion, emulsification,wetting and foaming have been investigated.A variety of surfactants was once synthesized from sugars and traditional hydrophobiccompounds. Monosaccharides, incl. D-glucose, 2-deoxy -2-amino-D-glucose, Dfructoseand D-(+)-glucono-1,5-lactone, have been used for the hydrophilic moiety ofthe surfactants. The hydrophobic moiety consisted of steroids, monoterpenes,rosin acids, fatty acids and lengthy chain alkyl teams, in addition to aromaticcompounds. ordinarily, the factitious techniques gave fairly excessive yields infew steps. a few novel surfactants have been ready in excessive yields in a single simple,synthetic step.A basic version couldn't rationalize the overall structure-propertyrelationship of the surfactants considering that no transparent developments should be saw. Allsurfactant homes have been in comparison to these of universal advertisement surfactants.The aqueous solubility follows the overall pattern anticipated from the HLB of thesurfactant whilst issues concerning the personality of the pinnacle team and theconnecting unit are additional. a few surfactants have been in a position to shape macroemulsionsbetween water and diverse oils. The emulsions have been sturdy for a number of months.Surfactants with open sugar head teams, not like closed sugar head groups,were stumbled on to be larger dispersion brokers. expanding the dimensions of the tail team, byusing dual chain tail teams, elevated the dispersion houses extra. Thewetting homes of the sugar-based surfactants have been often chanced on to bepoor. Foaming houses have been low for surfactants with low aqueous solubility.Some surfactants have been came upon to be fairly attention-grabbing: 1-deoxy -1-octylamino-D-glucitol is a great foaming and wetting agent, in addition to agood dispersion and emulsification agent. PEG- and sugar-based surfactants ofdehydroabietic acid are stable foaming brokers with reasonable wetting houses. Thesugar-based one can be a very stable dispersion agent.

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At the same time, a gluconamide with a smaller hydrophobe will tend to have a higher melting point (since it is less ‘oily’, as evidenced by comparing surfactants 6 and 14). Clearly, there is a delicate and subtle balance between the effects of the structure of the hydrophobe on the solubility of the surfactant. 43 Thus, there would seem to be a correlation between the aqueous solubility limits of both 2-deoxy -2-alkyl/aryl-amido-D-glucopyranoses and alkyl/aryl-Dgluconamides and the crystallization potential and structure of the compounds.

MM) Scheme 11. Solubility curves of a series of D-gluconamides. 0 mL) of different concentrations of each surfactant were prepared. The solution temperature was slowly increased (~1 °C/minute) from around +2 °C up to the boiling point of water, while the samples were slowly stirred. The temperature at which all of the surfactant was visibly dissolved was noted as the solubility limit temperature of the surfactant at that concentration. A detailed study of the alkyl/aryl-D-gluconamides in the scheme indicates that the solubility is affected by factors such as conjugation with the amide bond, the presence of an aromatic ring and the number of hydrophobic carbons.

Common commercial surfactants This class of surfactants is used in a wide array of applications, including uses as wetting agents and dispersion agents. g. g. dodecyl sodium sulfate), which are used as foaming agents and detergents. Both of these, however, have variable undesirable toxic or accumulative properties. It is, thus, desirable to exchange these for less toxic ones. Sugar-based surfactants offer a viable option for such an exchange. There are some sugar-based surfactants in commercial use.

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