By Alfred Slager
More and more the world's biggest banks have extra task taking place across the world. What are the results of internationalization, and what's a winning company version for the longer term? This e-book explores the formula, implementation and assessment of internationalization recommendations, interpreting these of the prime banks in 8 nations.
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Extra info for The Internationalization of Banks: Patterns, Strategies and Performance
Computers were then implemented to handle routine transactions and increase the capacity of the branches. In the mid-1970s, most branches were connected to a central computer (Channon, 1977). , 1997, p. 80 2000 2004 Year 40 The Internationalization of Banks installed by Barclays in 1968, and in 1969 Chemical Bank installed the ﬁrst ATM in the United States. Between 1980 and 2000, information technology (IT) had changed most banking markets. It enabled outsourcing, especially in high volume and low margin activities.
When the Japanese stock market moved downward from 1990 Banking since the 1980s: Challenges and Issues 25 onwards, due to tightening monetary policy triggering an economic recession, Japanese banks had to confront capital losses shrinking the net worth of the banks. This forced the banks to contract their lending activity and among others concentrate on the domestic market, withdrawing from international markets. The combination of economic recession and capital losses posed further problems for achieving minimum capital requirements.
Financial systems are on average more developed in richer countries. • In high-income countries, stock markets become more active and efﬁcient relative to banks. There is some tendency for ﬁnancial systems to become more market oriented as they become richer. • Legal and regulatory measures matter: countries with a common law tradition, strong protection of shareholder rights, good accounting regulations, low levels of corruption and no explicit insurance tend to be more market oriented. The opposite is true for French civil law tradition, where countries with poor protections of shareholder and creditor rights, high levels of corruption, poor accounting standards, restrictive regulation, and high inﬂation tend to have underdeveloped ﬁnancial systems (Demirgüç-Kunt & Levine, 2001).