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By John Curry

One in every of extra poorly understood elements of the Ottoman Empire has been the flourishing of Sufi mysticism lower than its auspices. This learn tracks the evolution of the Halveti order from its modest origins in medieval Azerbaijan to the emergence of the influential Sa'baniyye, whose variety as soon as prolonged in the course of the Empire. by way of rigorously reconstructing the lives of previously vague figures within the background of the order, a posh photograph emerges of the connections between Halveti teams, the nation, and society. much more very important, because the Sa'baniyye grew out of the cities and villages of the northern Anatolian mountains instead of the key city centres, this paintings brings a different viewpoint to the lives, paintings, and worship of Ottoman topics outdoors of the foremost city centres of the Empire. alongside the way in which, the examine sheds mild on less-visible actors, reminiscent of girls and artisans, and demanding situations generalizations concerning the actions and techniques of Ottoman mystics.

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41 The defeat mentioned in this narrative strongly implies that ʿÖmer made his break with the Ilkhanids probably at the point when Amîr Çoban’s power was collapsing during the mid-1320s. 42 Therefore, the idea of a “western Halveti” grounded in the figure of İbrâhîm Zâhid, however inchoate, seems possible. But this still leaves open a critical question: how could Hulvî claim that ʿÖmer had also come to be associated with Muhammad el-Halvetî and the shaykhs of the “eastern” branch? Hulvî continues his narrative of ʿÖmer’s mystical conversion by telling of his miraculous escape from the bandits.

Bits and pieces did emerge in at least one source, in the form of an Ottoman follower of a Naks¸bendî shaykh based in Bursa, Lâmiʿî Çelebi (d. 938/1532). Lâmiʿî is a critical figure, in that his grandfather Nakkâs¸ ʿAlî Pas¸a had apparently been deported to Samarqand by Timur and spent a number of years there before returning. As a result, Lâmiʿî developed relationships with prominent figures based in the eastern Islamic world, which allowed him to both translate and expand the ninth/ fifteenth-century hagiographical compilation of the Timurid author ʿAbd alRahman Jâmî (d.

He first offered a concluding remark at the end of his translation of one of Jâmî’s entries on an early Halveti figure, Zâhirüddîn Halvetî (d. 800/1398), and says: [A]ccording to what I heard from the great ones who lived in Herat, these aforementioned Halvetî shaykhs [like Zâhirüddîn] are not the Halvetî shaykhs which in our time are well-known in the area of S¸irvân and Anatolia. The exalted silsile of these aforementioned shaykhs derives from Shaykh Rükneddîn ʿAlâüddevle Simnânî. indd 29 17/09/2010 07:50 30 The Transformation of Muslim Mystical Thought In making these claims, Lâmiʿî raises the intriguing possibility that the Sufi order that came to be known under the moniker of “Halveti” may not have been a unified group during the post-Mongol Middle Period.

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