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By Metin Heper, Heinz Kramer, Ayse Oncu

Considering that Turkey's formal program for complete club of the eu group, the talk over no matter if it belongs in Europe or within the Islamic heart East has received new importance. This e-book appears to be like at Turkey's evolving experience of identification within the mild of contemporary political and social switch.

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As with the legions of Old Rome, such a camp was to be surrounded with a ditch and bank with L-shaped openings on each side. In addition, a strip of land was sown with caltrops in groups of nine strung on a light chain and pegged down at one end for ease of recovery. A zone providing advance warning of surreptitious nocturnal infiltration could be created by suspending bells on cords strung tightly between pegs surrounding the ditch. Within these boundaries the tents of the various units were to be pitched together laid out ENCAMPED IN POTENTIALLY HOSTILE TERRITORY Literary sources indicate that the Roman army's time-honoured practice of building carefully organized marching camps protected by an earth rampart with L-shaped openings in potentially hostile territory was still the paradigm in the tenth and eleventh centuries.

The evidence for the tenth century does not resolve the issue, for the military manuals have little specific to say about the dress of the troops, but by supplementing them with detail derived from other sources some confident conclusions can be drawn. The Strategikon had recommended 'Avar' garments for the cavalry, which can be taken to mean tunics split in the centre, a feature already shown in the art of Late Antiquity. The manuals are unanimous in recommending that military garments were to hang no lower than the knee, in the manner of labouring men, and in contrast to the dominant civilian fashion for men of higher status to wear tunics to the ankle.

From the eleventh century there are depictions of softer thigh boots tied up to the trouser cord. These were probably invented within the empire somewhat earlier, via a ready fusion of boots with the kampotouva mentioned above. The ancient term hypodimata is used for thigh boots, while boots below the knee were mouzakia. Shoes (sandalia and tzervoulia) are mentioned as a poor substitute for the infantry and were probably only ever seen on the servants of the cavalry arm. The standard colours in men's footwear were, just as today, natural tan through brown and black, with a few other colours (red, orange, blue and green) being restricted by law to particular high court ranks.

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